1 September Stressing Muscle Metabolism Prevents Obesity and Type 2 Diabetes September 1, 2017 By The Fraternal Order of Eagles Diabetes Research Center 0 Exciting new research was recently published in the EMBO Journal by the laboratory of FOEDRC Director, Dale Abel. The study suggests that gently stressing muscle metabolism could help prevent obesity and type 2 diabetes. The study was carried out on mice where the team found triggering a type of metabolic stress increased levels of a hormone called fibroblast growth factor-21 (FGF21). The findings showed the animals were completely protected from obesity and diabetes. Interestingly, in the mice which had already started to develop the condition, the hormone reversed the diabetes and helped them return to a normal weight with normal blood sugar levels. In a press release, Dr. Abel was quoted, “There is a biological phenomenon known as hormesis where a little bit of stress can be a good thing,” In other words, “there is probably a sweet spot ‘hormetically’, where creating a little bit of muscle stress could be of metabolic benefit.” The metabolic stress process involved the team applying genetic engineering to the mice, which reduced levels of a type of protein called OPA1 in the animal's muscles. Interestingly, the altered mice also were completely protected from the weight gain and glucose intolerance that normally develop in mice as they age or when they eat a high-fat diet. Moreover, the research team showed that reducing OPA1 levels in muscle, after mice had become obese and diabetic, reversed these problems – normalizing body weight and reversing glucose intolerance even though the high fat diet continued. Dr. Abel was also quoted as saying, "These experiments prove that muscle is the source of circulating FGF21 in the OPA1 deficient mice, and that muscle-derived FGF21 prevents diet-induced obesity and insulin resistance in these mice. If there is a way that muscle could be reprogrammed to make this hormone, then that could be of therapeutic benefit." The innovative results of this study are being recognized worldwide. In addition to Abel, the UI research team includes several FOE DRC researchers: Renata Oliveira Pereira, research assistant professor of internal medicine, who was the study’s first author, Satya Tadinada, Frederick Zasadny, Angela Olvera, Jennifer Jeffers, Rhonda Souvenir, Rose Mcglauflin, Alec Seei, Trevor Funari, Matthew Potthoff, Christopher Adams, and Ethan Anderson. The team also included Karen Jesus Oliveira, Karla Maria Pereira Pires at the University of Utah School of Medicine, and Hiromi Sesaki at Johns Hopkins School of Medicine. The research was funded in part by grants from the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute and the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, both part of the National Institutes of Health and the American Heart Association. Related An M-Health Intervention To Increase Activity Among Patients At Risk For Type 2 Diabetes In 2013, Dr. Philip Polgreen was the recipient of a FOEDRC Pilot Grant for his research entitled, “To evaluate a novel tool using text messages as a mechanism to promote sustained weight loss in patients with obesity and insulin resistance.” This cutting edge science was recently recognized and awarded additional funding by the National Institutes of Health (NIH). How Diabetes Harms The Heart Study in mice involving FOEDRC researchers, reveals heart-damaging pathway triggered by insulin, identifies possible drug targets to prevent or treat heart failure. Diabetes is hard on the heart. Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death in people with diabetes, and risk for heart failure—where the heart can’t pump enough blood—is two to three times higher in men and up to five times higher in women with diabetes compared to people without diabetes. Chemicals in Plastic Bottles and the Risk of Obesity and Diabetes DRC Director's Report, August 2017 As you all know, there are many factors that may contribute to the growing risk of obesity and diabetes worldwide. Many understand that an unhealthy diet, gaining too much weight or not exercising enough will certainly contribute to increasing your risk of diabetes. However, there is also a growing realization that certain environmental exposures and chemicals to which we might be exposed could also increase this risk. DRC Researcher Chris Adams Develops New Therapy for Age-Related Muscle Atrophy Scientists at the FOE Diabetes Research Center and University of Iowa have discovered the first example of a protein that causes muscle weakness and loss during aging. The protein, ATF4, is a transcription factor that alters gene expression in skeletal muscle, causing reduction of muscle protein synthesis, strength, and mass. The UI study also identifies two natural compounds, one found in apples and one found in green tomatoes, which reduce ATF4 activity in aged skeletal muscle. Casey Receives Grant Funding from American Diabetes Association Congratulations to Darren Casey, PhD, assistant professor of physical therapy and rehabilitation science, for recently receiving the American Diabetes Association Innovative Clinical or Translational Science Award. For his proposal entitled - Nitrate supplementation and exercise tolerance in patients with Type 2 Diabetes. Dr. Casey received this award after a National Competition that selected a fraction of the most meritorious proposals. DRC Researchers Publish Major Breakthrough In Understanding How Diabetes Induces Eye Damage In the retina, diabetes damages nerves before it damages blood vessels. Diabetes is a major risk factor for severe vision loss and blindness. A condition known as retinal diabetic neuropathy causes visual impairment through the degeneration of small nerves (neurons) in light-sensitive tissue called the retina, which lines the back of the eye. Showing 0 Comment Comments are closed.